Air Pollution in Mexico City Has Detrimental Impact on Alzheimer’s Disease

Air Pollution in Mexico City Has Detrimental Impact on Alzheimer’s Disease
Results from a recent study conducted by scientists at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Centro Médico Cozumel Universities of Montana, Valle de México, Boise State and North Carolina, revealed that air pollution has a harmful effect on hippocampal metabolites as early neurodegeneration markers among young urbanites that carry an allele 4 of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). According to the study, this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is also a marker of poor prognosis in the recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). During their lifetime, children and parents living in Mexico City are exposed to air pollutants, with concentrations above the USA recommendations, including fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In this study, researchers analysed 57 children and one parent (n=48) that shared the same APOE allele: either allele 3, 3/3, that is linked with no risk of Alzheimer’s or allele 4, 3/4 or 4/4 the least common genotype linked with risk of AD, as well as augmented levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, lipoproteins of low density and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The study focused on the hippocampus, a brain structure that is involved in memory processes and some affective behaviors. The researchers measured three major brain metabolites in the hippocampus with resource to a brain imaging technique known as proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the right hippocampus NAA/Cr ratio, functional integrity and reflective neuronal
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